How laws are made? The right to initiate laws
According to Article 91 of the Constitution of Ukraine, the Ukrainian Parliament is the only state body with the power to adopt laws. These are the parties that have the right to initiate laws:
The President of Ukraine
Members of Parliament
The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine
Laws can be initiated by submitting the following proposals to the Parliament:
Projects of new laws
Proposals to existing laws
Amendments to existing laws
The project of a new law has to be signed by the person who has the right to legislative initiative or the person who represents the state body that has such right.
The initiator of a new law has the right to present a speech about it at the plenary session of the Parliament and at the session of the main Parliamentary committee or the temporary special commission created for this issue.
The project of a new law has to be accompanied by the following documents:
Argumentation of the necessity to adopt the new law, its goals, tasks and its main provisions, together with the place in the legislative system which it will take
Argumentation of the expected socio-economic, legal and other influence of its application
After the law project is registered by the Parliament, it is submitted to the following committees:
The specialised Parliamentary committee which has the competence that is relevant to the initiated law
The committee which will examine the impact of the new law on the state budget and whether it complies with the existing state budget laws
The committee which will examine the compliance of the new law with the anti-corruption legislation
The committee which will examine the compliance of the new law with the international laws which concern European integration
The Cabinet of Ministers will also examine the impact of the new law on the state budget and whether it complies with the existing state budget laws.
As you can see, adopting new laws is a very complicated process, with several stages that involve many state actors. Next week we will explain what happens to the new laws after they have been examined by the Parliamentary committees.